Backup

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Backups are done using backupninja.

Backupninja is wrapper for numerous different backup solutions of which we use duplicity.

Duplicity is a enhanced combination of usual backup tools and tasks:

  • Creates compressed archives of files like tar
  • Differential transfers to remote storage locations like rsync
  • File encryption with gpg

Installation

Install duplicity from Python Packages

Note

If you install a newer version then make sure to remove all previous configurations, as they may lead to unpredictable results.

Remove already installed packages:

$ sudo apt purge duplicity
$ apt-get remove python-crypto python-paramiko python-pip duplicity

Install building requirements:

$ sudo apt-get install build-essential libssl-dev libffi-dev python-dev librsync-dev

Install pip (python package installer):

$ sudo -i
$ wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
$ python get-pip.py

Install required Python packages and duplicity:

$ pip install --upgrade pycrypto cryptography paramiko duplicity

Install Backupninja from Ubuntu Packages

Backupninja is in the repository, additionally we install duplicity and a Python library for making SSH connections to the storage host:

$ sudo apt-get install backupninja

Configuration

The main configuration is stored in /etc/backupninja.conf, while the different backup tasks are found in the directory /etc/backup.d.

There is a helper application to aid in the configuratoion of all this:

$ ninjahelper

What how and where to backup

The file /etc/backup.d/90.dup has all the meat.

Duplicity encrypts all backup-files before transferring to the remote storage:

sign = no
password = ********

Warning

Safe the password in a secure location! Without it you can’t restore anything!

Add more directories here when needed (e.g. after new software has been installed):

[source]
# files to include in the backup
include = /var/spool/cron/crontabs
include = /var/backups
include = /etc
include = /root
include = /home
include = /usr/local/*bin
include = /var/lib/dpkg/status*
include = /var/www

Leave the “files to exclude from the backup” as they are.

The backup destination needs a userprofile, which is able to login with its SSH key automatically. The directory system must be existing and the userprofile must have read/write access to it.

[dest]
incremental = yes
increments = 30
keep = 60
keepincroffulls = 6

destdir = /backup/Server/BackupNinja
desthost = nas.lan
destuser = server

Prepare the Backup Location

Since the backups will be carried out by the root user, the storage target needs his public keys for password-less authentication:

$ sudo -s -H
$ for type in rsa ecdsa ed25519; do ssh-keygen -t $type; done
$ ssh-copy-id server@nas.lan

Make sure you can login without password and that the target directory for the backups exists and is writeable.

While still working as root:

$ touch /tmp/testfile
$ scp /tmp/testfile server@nas.lan:/backup/BackupNinja/
$ ssh server@nas.lan rm /backup/BackupNinja/
$ rm /tmp/testfile

Testing

$ sudo backupninja -t -n -d

Working with Backups

Since backups are done by BackupNinja with Duplicity, we have to use the duplicity commandline interface to access them. backupninja only helps with the backup itself, not with anything else. Reference is the duplicity man page.

Since all commands need the backup storage location in duplicity URL format, we save that in an reusable environment variable:

$ sudo -i
$ export BACKUP_URL=sftp://server@nas.lan/backup/Server/BackupNinja
$ export ARCHIVE_DIR=/var/cache/backupninja/duplicity
$  export PASSPHRASE=********

Note

Note the space in front of the export PASSPHRASE=******** command- line. Command-lines which with a space in front of the, will not to be stored in the command-line history.

Backup Status

To check the overall status of our backups:

$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    collection-status ${BACKUP_URL}

Backup Catalog

List the latest available versions of all backed up file. We save the output in a text file backup-catalog.txt for later search.

$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    list-current-files ${BACKUP_URL} \
    > ${HOME}/backup-catalog.txt

Search the created catalaog for a specific file:

$ grep "owncloud/cron.php" backup-catalog.txt

Search for a version of a file backed up 30 days ago:

$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    list-current-files --time 30D  ${BACKUP_URL} \
        | grep "owncloud/cron.php"

Backup Verification

To compare single files or directory with what we have on backup:

$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    verify \
    --file-to-restore var/www/owncloud \
    ${BACKUP_URL} \
    var/www/owncloud

Restoring Files

To restore a single file (i.e. /var/www/owncloud/cron.php):

$ cd /
$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    --file-to-restore var/www/owncloud/cron.php
    ${BACKUP_URL} \
    var/www/owncloud/cron.php

Restore Databases

Backupninja exports the server MariaDB databases to a SQL file per database in the directory /var/backups/mysql. Thats where they are picked up by duplicity and backed up along with other files.

To restore a database to a given point in the past we nedd to use a combination of the commands introduced earlier to fetch the SQL dump file.

In the following example scencario, the upgrade of a Wordpress-Plugin reduced all our carefully carafted wordpress articles to gibberish. The upgrade happened on the 20th of February, but was only discovered a few days later. The Wordpress database is called wp_urown_net.

1. Create a backup catalog of a point in time when the database content was still readable:

$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    list-current-files ${BACKUP_URL} \
    --time 02-19-2015  > ${HOME}/backup-catalog-2015-02-19.txt

2. Search the created backup catalog backup-catalog-2015-02-19.txt for the database dump file wp_urown_net.sql

$ grep "wp_urown_net.sql" ${HOME}/backup-catalog-2015-02-19.txt
Sat Feb 19 01:00:07 2015 var/backups/mysql/sqldump/wp_urown_net.sql

3. Restore the dump-file wp_urown_net.sql to our home directory, but save it under the new name wp_urown_net-2015-02-19.sql:

$ duplicity --archive-dir ${ARCHIVE_DIR} \
    --file-to-restore var/backups/mysql/sqldump/wp_urown_net.sql \
    --time 02-19-2015 \
    ${BACKUP_URL} \
    ${HOME}/wp_urown_net-2015-02-19.sql
  1. Take a look a the dump-file, to make sure it has the expected content:

    $ less ${HOME}/wp_urown_net-2015-02-19.sql
    

5. Restore the database from the dump-file. All tables in the database will be deleted and recreated with the content of the dump-file:

$ mysql -u root -p wp_urown_net < ${HOME}/wp_urown_net-2015-02-19.sql