External Drives

Most people store their media files collection on external hard-drives attached by USB, FireWire or eSATA.

autofs, the kernel-based automounter for Linux can be used to mount external hard-drives:

$ sudo apt-get install autofs5

The installation creates and starts the system service autofs and creates the following configuration files:

  • /etc/auto.master
  • /etc/auto.net
  • /etc/auto.misc
  • /etc/auto.smb
  • /etc/default/autofs

Create the directory, where external USB hard-drives will be mounted into:

$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/media/usb

Edit the file /etc/auto.master and add the following line:

/media/usb /etc/auto.usb --timeout=900 --ghost

To identify the exact properties of the external hard-drive to be mounted later, make sure the cable is conneccted and it is powered on. The issue the following command:

$ sudo blkid -o list -w /dev/null

This will display a list of all attached file-systems and their various properties:

device          fs_type         label           mount point             UUID
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
...
/dev/sdb1       ext3            MyDrive         (not mounted)   00b0bc8a-57f7-497c-92c9-d1ad42d94432
...

With the properties now known to us, we are able to create the autofs configuration file /etc/auto.usb referenced earlier in the master configuration file.

MyDrive -fstype=ext3,noatime,nodiratime,sync,users,rw,nodev,noexec,nosuid,context=system_u:object_r:removable_t :/dev/disk/by-uuid/00b0bc8a-57f7-497c-92c9-d1ad42d94432

It should be all on one line.

Finally restart the autofs service:

$ sudo restart autofs

The external hard-drive will be mounted as soon as we access the directory /media/usb/MyDrive and un-mounted again after 15 minutes of no activity.

Media Server

MiniDLNA (aka ReadyDLNA) is server software with the aim of being fully compliant with DLNA/UPnP-AV clients.

Installation

Installation from the Ubuntu software package repository:

$ sudo apt-get install minidlna

Configuration

Open the configuration file /etc/minidlna.conf.

media_dir=A,/media/usb/MyDrive/Music
media_dir=V,/media/usb/MyDrive/Videos/Movies
media_dir=V,/media/usb/MyDrive/Videos/Series
media_dir=P,/media/usb/MyDrive/Pictures
media_dir=/var/lib/transmission-daemon/downloads

Web Monitor

MiniDLNA provides a webpage, where the current status of it can be examined.

Add the following block to your internal nginx server configuration:

# MiniDLNA / ReadyMedia
location /minidlna {
    proxy_pass http://localhost:8200/;
}

Troubleshooting

Inotify watches

Inotify is a method how the media server gets notfied, if any changes in the media file directories happen. If the media collection is large, you might get the following error in the logs:

WARNING: Inotify max_user_watches [8192] is low or close to the number of
used watches [1253] and I do not have permission to increase this limit.
Please do so manually by writing a higher value into
/proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_user_watches.

To increase the value from 8192 to a vlue eight times as high:

$ sudo -s
$ echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_user_watches
$ exit